Preserving a Hornets Nest

Before I became a beekeeper I never paid too much attention to wasps and hornets. But then I saw the body of bald-faced hornet hanging out of one of my beehives. The honeybees had attacked and decapitated her and were in the process of pushing the body out of the hive. I did some research and learned about hornets’ unique life cycles and behaviors. Even though they have spelled disaster for more than one of my beehives, they quickly gained my respect. For one thing, they build amazingly beautiful homes. You have probably seen them hanging in the woods, or near your home though I hope not!

A Collected Hornets Nest, look at those swirls and rings of different colored paper!

Bald-faced hornets (aka: bull wasps or blackjackets) are a species that is prolific in my area and across North America. They aren’t hornets at all, but a type of large wasp. They are big, black in color, and have dabs of white on their abdomens and heads. They build large, paper nests typically high in trees or on structures. Although these nests resemble the “beehives” from Winnie The Pooh, you won’t find any honey in them. While they do collect some sugars from fruit and flowers for feeding their babies, they are mainly carnivorous and can be found eating meat or other insects. Their queen emerges from her burrow underground in the spring and begins constructing a small nest and laying eggs to build up her colony. Soon her offspring will help her build the nest, and she will retreat to lay eggs for the entirety of the season. In the fall, the queen will burrow underground or under a log, leaving the rest of her brood to freeze and die. The queen will start constructing a new nest in the spring; this leaves the previous nest vacant and available for collecting.

nest in tree
A Hornets Nest Hanging 30 Feet Above Ground. Sometimes they can be dangerous to collect…

The best time to collect a nest is after several hard frosts — this ensures that the inhabitants are dead and eliminates the possibility of getting stung. In most instances, hornets nests are located very high in trees. Please take extreme care and caution when collecting a hornets nest. You will most likely need to cut some branches around the nest to get it out. We like to leave the sticks and branches intact at a length because we like the way it looks.

After you have successfully collected your hornets nest, it’s a good idea to place it in the freezer for a week or two, especially if you are concerned about remaining, living hornets. Your nest may have a slightly foul scent to it; this is the result of remaining larvae and eggs rotting. If this is the case, leave it sitting in the garage or barn for a couple of weeks. We have done this a few times and have never experienced this … however, we do have very cold winters in our area.

The paper nest will last indefinitely in its natural state, though you can spray it with a coat or two of shellac if you wish. Hang in the desired location with clear fishing line, and you will have a conversation starter for years to come!

Prune Your Blackberries To Maximize Yield

While all bramble fruit seem pretty no muss no fuss, they actually do require some tender loving twice a year. They will continue to fruit and reproduce without pruning of course, but they won’t be nearly as vibrant from season to season if you don’t devote just a little time to them. These pruning methods can be applied to raspberries, too, since the plants’ growing habits are the same.

There are several kinds of blackberry plants that behave in all sorts of different ways. The three main types are Erect, Trailing, and Thorn-less. It helps to know what type you have when it comes to trellising the canes. I happen to have erect blackberries, they have tall arching canes and I do not trellis them. I find that they do just fine without it for our circumstances, though perhaps in the future it would be nice to do an upgrade. No matter the type you have, they all like to be pruned in the same manner. Pruning has many benefits including helping ward off diseases, larger berries, and higher yield.

 

Blackberry Primocane, This primocane is ready to be tip pruned!

Blackberry canes are “biennial” meaning that the canes live for two years. In nearly all varieties first year canes will not bear fruit and are called “primocanes”; they are easy to spot because they are bright green. In the spring you will want to tip prune the first few inches from the primocanes when they are still shorter than 3 feet tall. This makes the primocane grow a thicker stem that will support a larger fruit load next year, and send off more lateral branches where more berries will grow. You will notice in the fall that the primocanes will have grown their thin brown bark in preparation for the winter and next year

Blackberry runners or “suckers” Suckers will pop up 2-3 feet away from your blackberry patch, we like to dig them up and plant them back in the row!

Some varieties of blackberries send runners or “suckers” off a few feet away from the patch. If the suckers look nice, we like to dig them up and plant them back in the row. Its a nice free way to expand our patch. -Suckers are primocanes.

The current year’s fruiting canes are called “floricanes”. Besides blossoming and bearing fruit these canes can be identified by their thin brown bark. After their fruit ripens the leaves on these canes start to fizzle out. In the winter trim the spent floricanes back to the crown. In winter when there are no leaves and the brand new floricanes for the coming season look the same at first glance as last year’s dead floricanes, pruning can be a little tricky if it’s your first time. Last year’s spent floricanes will look brown while new floricanes (last years primocanes) will have a purplish tint when compared with each other. Another way to tell them apart is to look for the remnants of last years fruiting blooms. And if that isn’t quite enough to make you certain you are about to chop the right cane, you can take your clippers and scrape a teeny bit of bark off. If it is green underneath the bark you have a new cane, if its brown you have a dead cane that needs to be pruned. Getting rid of the spent canes in the winter before fruiting helps the plant to focus nutrients on the new floricanes.

Blackberry floricane
Floricanes Bearing Fruit

 

Dead Floricane
A Spent Floricane, This guy needs to be pruned. Notice last years blossom ends where the fruit formed.

When pruning there are a few tools you will need:

* A good pair of hand clippers
* Leather gloves and or kevlar sleeves
* Alchohol wipes
* Wagon, to haul away the debris

In between cuts wipe your clippers off with an alcohol wipe to prevent spreading diseases from one plant to another, especially if you are moving between species (raspberries, black raspberries etc.) sure it takes a little more time but this one simple bio-security measure can protect your berry investment for years to come.  All bramble fruit is susceptible to a wide array of fungal diseases and other icky stuff so it is always a good practice to burn the pruned canes after the job is done to prevent spreading disease.  Wild black raspberries are notorious for giving diseases to domesticated bramble fruit so do your best to keep your blackberry patch well and away from wild varieties.  But please folks, don’t rip them out as they are an important food for our beloved wildlife.

Black Walnut Toxicity; What It Means For Your Garden

I chose the location of my garden based on two factors. The first being that a house was demolished years ago on one end of the property, so I wanted to put it far away from any hidden debris and avoid the clay that was turned up during the demolition and excavation. The second, was that my hose had to reach. In the end I really didn’t have much choice where it went. I had no idea that I had to take into consideration the trees growing near my garden. I found out, however, after a crappy first year of tomatoes and a conversation with the lovely gal who owns the local garden center, that the young black walnut tree right next to my garden was likely the culprit.

Walnuts

 

Its called allelopathy.  Its a trait some plants posses and it means that they produce one or more biochemicals that affect growth, germination, and reproduction of other plants. Known as allelochemicals, they can either support the growth of neighboring plants or kill all the competition.  Think of it as a plants survival instinct, instead of spraying a putrid odor from their anal glands like a skunk these plants emit biochemicals to protect themselves. They can also use these allelochemicals to from keep from being eaten by animals. Black walnut trees produce a biochemical called “juglone” that kills many types of plants (including tomatoes) in an effort to ensure that the tree can get the most nutrients from the surrounding soil with little competition. The biochemical works by inhibiting respiration, and essentially starving out sensitive plants. Juglone exists in all parts of the tree, bark, roots, leaves, and of course the walnut hulls. Underneath the tree’s canopy is where most of the danger lies, however it can be as far-reaching as 50-80 feet from the trunk of the tree. Even if the tree is cut down, it will be years before the toxicity declines, as it is impossible to remove all of the roots from the soil.

Plants suffering from juglone toxicity will show wilting and yellowing of the leaves that doesn’t improve with thorough watering. And eventual death of the plant. There are many lists of juglone-sensitive and -tolerant plants out there and this is a very short one at that. There is also some debate about what plants belong on the list and ones that don’t. It seems that some varieties of tulips, for example, are juglone tolerant, while others still are sensitive and won’t survive near the trees. Most of the studies regarding juglone sensitivity have focused on tomatoes and a few other popular crops. Check out your state extension services for more lists.

Juglone Sensitive Plants:
Tomatoes
Rhubarb
Potatoes
Peppers
Cabbage
Asparagus
Peas

Juglone Tolerant Plants:
Beans
Corn
Garlic
Onions
Melons
Squash
Beets
Carrots

I admit that my juglone sensitive plants have still done quite well despite this toxin being present in the soil, besides peppers, that is, never did have much luck with peppers. I attribute my success to not allowing leaves/twigs nor nuts and hulls to decompose in my garden. Also, my whole garden gets tilled twice a year, and in between rows several times in the season.. The aeration and well drained soil goes a long way in aiding the decomposition of juglone. Making sure your garden is nutrient-rich and has lots of healthy microbes from lots of compost helps a lot, too, but it only delays the inevitable. As the tree grows the toxin will spread and I will be forced to take action. Luckily there are ways to get up and away from juglone. Raised beds lined with weed/root proof liner or even container gardening are possibilities, along with the obvious: Moving the garden.

Since juglone exists in all parts of the tree, be sure to never ever compost any part of the tree and never use it as mulch. Black Walnut trees aren’t the only juglone-producing tree you need to look out for either. Butternut, hickory, and English walnut are also guilty of producing the toxin. So if your garden is a little sad and wilted, look up and take a gander at the trees that surround it.

 

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